Pakistan:

 

The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have helped the two countries begin to work through their issues. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control domestic insurgents, many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking small steps to put relations back on track.

Geographical location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Area: total: 796,095 sq km country comparison to the world: 36 land: 770,875 sq km water: 25,220 sq km Land Boundaries: total: 6,774 km border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Weather: Current Weather, mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west.

 

Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m

highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

 

Natural resources:

land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use:arable land: 24.44%

permanent crops: 0.84%

other: 74.72% (2005)

Irrigated land:182,300 sq km (2003)

 

Total renewable water resources:233.8 cu km (2003)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 169.39 cu km/yr (2%/2%/96%)

per capita: 1,072 cu m/yr (2000)

 

Natural hazards:

frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

 

Environment:

Current issues:

water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification Population:174,578,558 (July 2009 est.)

 

country comparison to the world: 6 Ethnic groups: Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%Religions:Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%Languages:Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brohi 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%

Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 49.9%
male: 63% female: 36% (2005 est.)

 

Parliament House, Islamabad

Political parties and leaders: Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Fazlur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Pakistan Peoples Party-SHERPAO or PPP-S [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-i Islami [Allama Sajid NAQVI]Inflation rate (consumer prices):14.2% (2009 est.)

 

country comparison to the world: 211
20.3% (2008 est.)

 

Central bank discount rate:15% (31 December 2008)

 

country comparison to the world: 44
10% (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of money: $52.76 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of quasi money: $18.42 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Stock of domestic credit: $65.05 billion (31 December 2007)

 

Market value of publicly traded shares:$23.49 billion (31 December 2008)

 

country comparison to the world: 53
$70.26 billion (31 December 2007)
$45.52 billion (31 December 2006)

 

Agriculture:

Products:cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs

Industries:textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp

Industrial production growth rate:-3.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101

 

Electricity:

Electricity - production:90.8 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Electricity - consumption:72.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2008 est.)

 

Oil:

Oil - production:61,870 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Oil - consumption:383,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Oil - exports:30,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
Oil - imports:319,500 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Oil - proved reserves:339 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

 

Gas:

Natural gas - production:37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Natural gas - consumption:37.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
Natural gas - proved reserves:885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Current account balance:-$2.42 billion (2009 est.)

 

country comparison to the world: 154
-$15.68 billion (2008 est.)

 

Exports:$17.87 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
$21.09 billion (2008 est.)

 

Exports - commodities:textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs

 

Exports - partners:US 16.1%, UAE 11.7%, Afghanistan 8.6%, UK 4.5%, China 4.2% (2008)
Imports:$28.31 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$38.19 billion (2008 est.)

 

Imports - commodities:petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports - partners:China 14.3%, Saudi Arabia 12.2%, UAE 11.3%, Kuwait 5.5%, US 4.8%, Malaysia 4.1% (2008)

 

Foreign Reserves:

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$15.68 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
$8.903 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

 

Debt - external:$52.12 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$46.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$27.95 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$25.44 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

 

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.078 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
$1.017 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Currency Exchange

 
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